HAND-CRAFTED LEATHER GOODS
Some of the many kinds of leather - continued
Ostrich:- A native of North Africa, and found in Australia,
fast running, flightless, largest existing bird with stout two-toed feet, dark
feathers and bald head. The leather has a characteristic grain, with heavy quill
marks covering about half the skin. Careful planning is essential if maximum use
of the skin is to be obtained. Ostrich is normally finished in tan colour
and averages about 12-17 sq ft.
Grading depends upon the number of quarters in which defects can be found within the central "diamond" area (see below). Divide the knob area of an ostrich skin into quarters, e.g. the line from the neck to the tail and from one leg to the other. A defect can be a hole, scratch, loose scab, a healed wound or bacterial damage but must be less than 40 mm x 40 mm in size.
|Grade I - defects permitted in 1 quarter of the skin only
Grade II - defects in 2 quarters of the skin only
Grade II - defects in 3 quarters of the skin only
Grade IV - defects in 4 quarters of the skin
Q (1) to Q (4) = Central Diamond Area
N = Neck
S (1), S (2) = Upper Belly Flap
S (3), S (4) = Lower Belly Flap
While ostrich leather is considered one of the world's most unique looking leathers, Ostrich Grain Embossed Splits look like the real thing but cost much less. Excellent for personal accessories like purses, handbags, key cases, coin purses and more. Also used as a distinctive trim. Splits average up to 17 sq ft in 1½ to 2 oz weight.
Parchment:- The characteristic features of parchment, which confirm its animal origin, can usually be recognized under close examination with a hand lens (30x) or a microscope. These features include the hair follicle pattern, veining, natural scars and bruises, and, in certain skins, fat deposits. The follicle pattern may be most pronounced across bony areas of the animal, such as the ribs or spine. Raking, transmitted, and ultraviolet light often help to make these features more prominent.
Parchment is the un-tanned skins of animals, particularly of sheep and goat, prepared for use as a writing material. The name is a corruption of Pergamum, (situated in modern-day Turkey approximately 85 kilometres north of Izmir and 25 kilometres east of the Aegean Sea) the ancient city of Asia Minor where preparation of parchment (charta Pergamena) suitable for use on both sides was achieved in the 2nd century B.C. The skins were soaked in water, treated with lime to loosen the hair, scraped, washed, stretched, and dried, and then rubbed with chalk and pumice stone. A fine grade prepared from the skin of calf or kid became known as Vellum, a name applied during the Middle Ages to any parchment used in manuscripts.
It was the most common writing material during the early Middle Ages in Europe, replacing papyrus until it gave way to paper (when there was a strong demand for cheaper, more malleable materials) with the invention of printing in the 15th century. Parchment is made from the skin of sheep and goats and has considerably more strength and durability than papyrus, and yields readily to being folded into book form. Sometimes the term vellum is used indiscriminately, but vellum refers specifically to the skin of calves, used mainly as a binding material. For important manuscripts Vellum was often dyed purple. Parchment is still used for certain documents and diplomas, book-bindings, lampshades, drumheads, tambourines and banjos. Vegetable parchment, is paper treated to make it tough, translucent, and impervious to water.
Click image above to see more detail
The primary difference between leather and parchment is that in the production of leather all the processes are designed to produce a supple skin in which the bundles of fibres slide over one another in a flexible fashion. In the production of parchment the fibres are stretched so that they lie almost parallel to form a hard, rigid sheet. Parchment has great stability and permanence if kept in a dry, stable environment. Parchment rolls were very common, but the chief value of parchment was its ability to be stitched together in large gatherings to form durable and flexible volumes.
Parchment is hygroscopic (absorbs moisture) and, while chemically stable, is dimensionally unstable and reactive to changes in the moisture level. Because parchment was created by stretching the fibres under strain, moisture will allow the fibres to change shape and cause distortion and wrinkles.
Peccary:- A wild boar, genus Tayassu, native to Central and South America. Similar to pigskin, a grain leather also known as hogskin. (Hogskin is also obtained from another South American rodent called the carpincho.) The leather is smooth, firm and supple and very durable and can easily be recognised by the hair-holes which are in groups of three. It makes a very smart glove for casual and country wear.
It is pig-like in appearance. Its head and shoulders are large; legs and
hindquarters small. Grizzled greyish or blackish above and below, with a
yellowish tinge on the cheeks; whitish to yellowish irregular collar from
shoulder to shoulder. Heavy, bristly hair from head to back, erectable into a
mane. It has an inconspicuous tail with a pig-like snout. Its tusks (canines)
are about 1"– 1½" (3cm – 3·5 cm); only the tips protrude beyond
the lips. There are four toes on
the forefeet, and three on the hind-feet; all have 2 hooves, on the third and fourth toes.
Juveniles are brownish with a black stripe down the back. Ht 20"– 24" (50cm – 60 cm); L 35"– 40"
(87cm – 102 cm); T ¾"– 2¹/8" (1·9cm – 5·5cm); HF 7¹/8"– 7⅞" (18cm – 20 cm); Wt 30lb – 65 lb
(13·6kg – 30kg). Scat: Usually large, irregular segments or flattened disks when
feeding on very succulent vegetation.
Peccary are the only wild native pig from the Americas. When in danger it fights viciously with its tusks. There are two species: the Collared peccary or javelina, its bristly, grizzled and grey black hair is marked with a white neck band and it survives in small numbers in parts of Arizona, New Mexico and Texas but is more numerous southward to Patagonia; the white-lipped peccary is found from central Mexico to Paraguay. Both sexes have a musk gland on the rump. They eat a variety of plant and animal foods and their flesh is palatable. (back)
Picker Leather:- The picker is the mechanism on either side of a power loom that throws the sharp pointed shuttle and receives it again as it is thrown back. For arming this mechanism, long experience has found nothing equal to a special, very tough leather, usually rawhide – either cattle or buffalo. Such picker leather is made extensively in the North of England and in parts of the USA, partly from native cattle hides and partly from imported buffalo hides. (see also, Picker Maker)
Pickled Sheepskins:- Un-split sheep and lambskins, from which the wool has been removed, treated with a solution of salt and acid to preserve them until the tanning operation begins.
Pigskin:- A leather produced from the skin of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), also hogs. The hair follicles penetrate the whole substance of the skin and are clustered in threes. Has a characteristically looser fibre structure than sheep or goat. Widely used in the clothing, shoe, handbag and glove trade.
What makes this material so special? For an answer, we can look to our own human skin which has so many very special properties. Human skin breathes through many tiny pores, which allow it to keep the body cool in summer and comfortable in cold weather. It is tough and durable, protecting all of our inside working parts; yet, stays soft with very little attention. Pigskin is the most similar skin to our own. It, too, is breathable all the way through; is tough and durable; and (with some tender loving care from the tanner) can be soft and beautiful.
It is especially interesting to note that surgeons often use pigskin in their work since it has so many of these very special traits.
Pigskin is also a readily available by-product of the pork industry, which
provides meat, ham, bacon, sausage, and other food.
But, until the 1940’s it was impractical to look to pigskin as a major source of fine
leather. Pigs were much tougher to skin — unlike the cow, which has a hide much
like a coat, the pig required a highly-trained workman to remove the skin, and the
process took as much as a half-hour by hand.
The most logical comparison might be a banana and an apple. The banana has a peel which is easily removed (much like the hide of a cow) while the apple has a peel which requires a great deal more skill, and a knife, to remove. Obviously, it takes a great deal more time to peel an apple than it does a banana.
This situation made pigskin a material which was difficult to obtain even with packing houses processing hundreds of animals an hour.
The solution to this problem came from a company called Wolverine. After years of development, and more than $2-million in investment (an especially large sum since we are discussing millions of dollars in the 1940’s), Wolverine developed skinning and fleshing equipment which could remove the skins from pigs at a rate of more than 400 per hour.
That door opened a wide range of possibilities — from the development of shoes like Hush Puppies®, which featured the finest benefits of pigskin, to gloves, and upholstery in thousands of automobiles, all of which have those benefits of breath-ability, toughness, easy maintenance and beauty. Today, this technology is still at work making pigskin even better, with even a weather-tight leather available which is ideal for footwear which must withstand special conditions.
Pin Seal or Pin Grain:- Name commonly applied to natural grain of high-grade sealskin, tanned for fancy leather. Also imitated on sheepskin, goatskin, calfskin, and cowhide, but these should be described as "pin-grain sheepskin", "pin-grain goatskin", etc.
Rambee Bisonte:- Processed on a hard-wax tannage with a light polish added to enhance its dressy appearance. Has a natural milled grain and a very light pull-up, providing a slight contrast in tone when used for upholstery and giving outstanding results when used on premium sofas, etc.
Rawhide:- Un-tanned hide or skins. "White" rawhide is a very flexible, high tensile leather. Resistant to water and low temperatures. For sledges and marine use. Has a parchment like appearance and pungent smell. Rawhide is made by scraping the skin thin, soaking it in lime, and then stretching it while it dries. Like alum-tanning, rawhide is not technically "leather", but is usually lumped in with the other forms. Rawhide is stiffer and more brittle than other forms of leather, and is primarily found in uses such as drum heads where it does not need to flex significantly; it is also cut up into cords for use in lacing or stitching, or for making many varieties of dog chews.
Reverse Retan:- Leather tanned first with vegetable tannin and then with chromium compounds.
Reversed Calf:- Term applied to calf leather of heavier weights, finished on flesh side, containing oils to make it more water-resistant than suede, used for shoes where a nappy leather is required. Originally called "Trench Calf" in England, the term "Hunting Calf" is also used in this country. The term "Service Leathers" is also used but is generally applied to splits and side leather.
Rexine:- Strictly speaking this entry should not be here at all. It's a trade-name for leather-cloth a strong, coated cloth, usually in the form of an imitation leather, and used in upholstery and bookbinding. The weave and composition of the base (grey) cloth depending on the grade of cloth being manufactured at the time, and could be cotton or a cotton and rayon mixture. Its cellulose nitrate coating is coloured by mixing powdered pigments with synthetic oils and is applied in several layers, each being dried before the next application. It was listed in the 1915 Trademarks Journal as belonging to the British Leather-cloth Manufacturing Co Ltd (later Rexine Ltd) of Hyde, near Manchester. Polyvinyl chloride may also be used for the coating. Embossing is done with engraved steel rollers, usually to imitate the grain pattern of a leather, but sometimes with modern geometric designs. This type of cloth has been in use since the first decades of the 20th century. Nowadays mostly manufactured in India, comparatively cheap, with a range of colours, sold in rolls 1 or 2 metres wide, prone to damage. See Here.
Rhubarb tanning:- The Agricultural
College in Bernburg/Thuringia had cultivated two hectares of land for growing
rhubarb. The first harvest in October 1999 yielded sufficient tanning agent for
preserving around 8000 square metres of leather. The company Wertleder from Zug
in Saxony, which has already proved to be a reliable partner in the past, is
responsible for the production of leather on behalf of Audi.
As natural as possible is the motto for the new type of leather that Audi is currently testing for use in its vehicles. In order to achieve this objective, a substance is used in both tanning and dyeing which is obtained from the root of an indigenous type of rhubarb. This is a sustainable natural product that does not create any pollutive waste in production. Nor does it have to be imported from far away like other naturally extracted tanning substances.
A maximum of 3% of the tanning agent required can be extracted from the root. But the demand from Audi customers for leather which is manufactured as naturally as possible is growing. And it is already clear that the area for cultivating rhubarb can be extended without any trouble to meet increasing demand.
Rigging Leather:- A strong flexible, vegetable tanned leather.
Roans:- A variety of leather produced from a superior grade of un-split sheepskin. Roan is softer than basil, and is coloured and finished in imitation of morocco . The typical roan has a close, tough, long, boarded grain, a compact structure, and is usually dyed a red colour. Originally, roans were leathers tanned exclusively with sumac (as were the moroccos); however, in later years they were often tanned with other vegetable tannins. They were used extensively for covering books from about 1790 until well into the 19th century, but have been seldom used since that time.
Roller Leather:- Special vegetable tanned leather for the covers of the upper rolls of cotton-spinning machinery. Tanned from certain classes of sheep, lamb, and calfskins.
Russet:- A term of varied meaning in the leather trade, since it denotes both colour and tanning. Russet calf is the natural colour of unfinished calf leather resulting from tanning by vegetable extracts. Russet harness is a completely finished leather of uniform colour and finish. Russet sheepskin, used for shoe linings, is leather tanned in cold-leached hemlock bark, with the colour resulting from the hemlock. Russet upholstery is leather, tanned, but not finished.
Russia Leather:- Leather characterised by its odour. "Anglo Russians" are skins treated with birch tar oil to imitate the smell of Russia leather.
It owes its name to the country of its origin. The skins used for its production are goat, large sheep, calfskin, and cow or steer hide. The preliminary operations of soaking, de-hairing, and fleshing are done in the usual manner, and then the hides are permitted to swell in a mixture of rye flour, oat flour, yeast, and salt. This compound is made into a paste with water, and is then thinned with sufficient water to steep a hundred hides in the mixture. The proportions of ingredients used for this mixture are 22 pounds rye flour, 10 pounds oat flour, a little salt, and sufficient yeast to set up fermentation.
The hides are steeped in this compound for 2 days, until swelled up, and then put into a solution of willow and poplar barks, in which they are allowed to remain for 8 days, being frequently turned about. The tanning process is then completed by putting them into a tanning liquor composed of pine and willow barks, equal parts. They are steeped for 8 days in this liquor, and then a fresh liquor of the same ingredients and proportions is made up.
The hides are hardened and split, and then steeped in the freshly made liquor for another 8 days, when they are sufficiently tanned. The hides are then cut down the middle (from head to tail) into sides, and scoured, rinsed, and dried by dripping, and then passed on to the currier, who slightly dampens the dry sides and puts them in a heap or folds them together for a couple of days to temper, and then impregnates them with a compound consisting of ⅔ parts birch oil and ⅓ parts seal oil. This is applied on the flesh side for light leather, and on the grain side also for heavy leather. The leather is then "set out," "whitened," and well boarded and dried before dyeing.
A decoction of sandalwood, alone or mixed with cochineal, is used for producing the Russian red colour, and this dye liquor is applied several times, allowing each application to dry before applying the following one. A brush is used, and the dye liquor is spread on the grain side. A solution of tin chloride is used in Russia as a mordant for the leather before laying on the dye. The dye liquor is prepared by boiling 18 ounces of sandalwood in 13 pints of water for 1 hour, and then filtering the liquid and dissolving in the filtering fluid 1 ounce of prepared tartar and soda, which is then given an hour's boiling and set aside for a few days before use.
After dyeing, the leather is again impregnated with the mixture of birch and seal oils (applied to the grain side on a piece of flannel) and when the dyed leather has dried, a thin smear of gum-dragon mucilage is given to the dyed side to protect the colour from fading, while the flesh side is smeared with bark-tan juice and the dyed leather then grained for market.
(1) The Russians manufactured for a long time a variety of
red leather called Juncten. This leather has an agreeable and characteristic
odour, does not attract mould even in damp places and is not attacked by insects.
It is a smooth leather, tanned with willow, birch or oak, and scented on the
flesh side with birch oil.
(2) Originally and properly calfskin shoe leather, dressed with birch oil and distinguished by its odour rather than its appearance.
Saffian:- Is a leather tanned with sumach. Usually goatskin or sheepskin it is dyed in bright colours. It is embossed to give a crosshatched texture to the leather.
Saladero Hides:- South American hides corresponding to all hides produced in the United States by the larger "small packers".
Satin Finish:- A dull or matt finish on leather as distinguished from a "glazed" finish.
Scotch Grain:- A embossed, pebbled pattern, usually on cattle hide or calf leather, made to resemble heavy leather with a coarse grain. Scotch Grain was first created by a fortunate accident two hundred years ago in a Scottish tannery. A small Scottish tanner making leather for belts to turn various farm machines and horse bridles discovered one hide lying flat on the pebbly cement floor. When the tanner retrieved the hide, the pebble grain remained embedded on the leather. In an attempt to remove the pattern, he rolled, stretched and polished the hide, only to enhance the look of the grain on the leather. When a local shoemaker saw this strange textured hide, he admired it and made custom hunting boots for one of his wealthiest clients. A new fashion was created: Scotch Grain.
Well, you can believe the above, or you can go for this version:
"BruichLaddich Grain"™ was originally developed by thrifty Scots on the Isle of Islay as a method of utilizing the mash byproduct of the whisky distillation process. Romanticized stories are oft told to credulous tannery tourists of the process dating to the Picts, but that's unlikely. Utilizing vintage charred oak barrels that have served their whisky aging purpose, Highland cattle skins are layered within the barrels and interspersed with copious amounts of leftover barley mash. Over time, sometimes as long as 12 or more years, the skins develop the familiar pebbled, shrunken grain. The mash also imbues the skin with its customary Cognac colour. Hides aged 30 years are the connoisseur's choice, and only available at the most exclusive bespoke bootmakers. Most are private firms who only accept commissions via referral. Completely unknown on enthusiast forums. In less democratic times the skins were reserved for nobles. Known in the U.S. as "Scotch" grain, a misnomer. Scots grain is correct for those unable to properly pronounce BruichLaddich, (which is, for what it's worth, Brook Laddie). Much of what passes for genuine Scots grain is ersatz non-Celtic dairy cattle gunge squeezed between embossing rollers to simulate the effect of mash aging.
Sealskin:- Sealskin comes in fine and coarse grain variants. The follicle pattern is irregular and independent of the grain (hence it is found on the rises as well as in the hollows). There is some resemblance to goatskin and it has an oily feel.
Semillee:- A semi-aniline dyed full-grain water buffalo leather with a very soft hand and a richly polished surface. Semillee is also hand-stained and rubbed providing a richness that accentuates the beauty of the natural buffalo grain.
Shagreen:- From Turkish "saghri" meaning the croup of a beast. Originally made in Persia from the probably un-tanned hides of asses, horses and camels. Seeds of a species of Chenopodium were trampled into the skin when it was moist and shaken out when it dried, thus leaving granular indentations. The material was then stained. In the 17th century and later, shagreen was made either of finely granulated shark skin or of the skin of a ray fish, whose pearl like papillae were ground flat, leaving a lovely pattern. The shark's hide lasts an extremely long time if it is prepared correctly, namely if it is well flayed and then washed, cured, dried, etc. The dried skin is known as "shagreen" because of its similarity to the un-tanned granulate hide of the back and hindquarters of a horse (this also being known as shagreen).
The most sought-after skin which fetches the highest price in the leather industry is that of the Tiger Shark. Hammerhead skin is among the cheapest. The denticles are removed before the skin is tanned to make durable leather which is used for quality shoes and cowboy trousers. It is even more elastic than cowhide or pigskin and much sturdier (150 times more resistant to wear than that of bovine leather).
The Japanese are the world's leading shark-catchers having a long tradition involving sharks. This is why samurai swords have always had hilts covered with Angel Shark hide, the roughness of which prevents the sword from slipping in the hand.
A highly prized leather, "Boroso", comes from the processing of Moroccan sharks. The dermic denticles are not removed, but polished so as to give the leather a texture that is both aesthetically pleasing and very tough.
Shearling:- Wooled sheep and lambskins tanned with the wool intact.
Sheepskin:- The skin from a mature sheep is indicated by the unsplit skin and does not have an attractive grain. Inferior to goatskin, so is frequently embossed. When sheepskins are split before tanning it is generally oil dressed and converted into chamois leather.
Shrunken Grain Leather:- A full, natural-grain leather which is shrunken to enlarge and enhance the grain of the leather.
Shrunken Lamb:- A tanning process that actually shrinks the hide, creating a more pebbly or puckered, grainy appearance.
Skiver:- The thin grain
layer split from a sheepskin, Persian or goat and is generally split before
tanning. Variable qualities. Traditionally used as a lining material in
footwear, as bookbinding and for table tops, skivers present a versatile and
economical leather finish. Nappa Skivers are used extensively in the handbag and
clothing industry where high fashion sheep grain is prized.
The top half of the skin, the Pickled Grain, is tanned with vegetable extract into Skiver Leather. The inner half of the skin is tanned with Cod Oil into Chamois Leather.
Because of the paper-thickness to which skivers are sometimes split and because of the variety of grains with which they are embossed, it is sometimes assumed that skiver is not leather. The qualities are wide ranging. Some are so thin it is possible to see through the hair follicles, but it is still leather.
Smooth Skiver This leather is produced from the outer grain layer of sheepskins. It is aniline dyed and a pigmented finish coating is applied on top. The average size per skin is 0·80 – 0·95m² (8 – 9ft²) with a substance of 0·4mm. These skins will yield a cut approximately 65 x 75cm. Available in a standard range of shades, in grades I and II.
Glazed Skiver This leather is produced from the outer grain layer of sheepskins. As with the Smooth Skiver, it is aniline dyed and a pigmented finish coating is applied on top. In addition to which is added a gloss lacquer coat. The average size per skin is 0·80 – 0·95m² (8 – 10ft²) with a substance of 0·4mm. These skins will yield a cut approximately 65 x 75cm. Available in a standard range of shades, in grades I and II.
Embossed Skiver Produced the same way as the Smooth and Glazed Skiver, but with the addition of an artificial grain effect. The average size per skin is 0·80 – 0·95m² (8 – 10ft²) with a substance of 0·4mm. These skins will yield a cut approximately 65 x 75cm. The Embossed Skiver is available with a choice of embossing grains, and in standard pigmented shades. Available in grades I and II.
Fair Skiver These natural un-dyed skins are supplied in one grade only. Since the Fair Skiver has no finish, it will take Aniline Leather Dyes with ease. The average size per skin is 0·80 – 0·95m² (8 – 10ft²) with a substance of 0·4mm. These skins will yield a cut approximately 65 x 75cm.
Slat:- Vegetable tanned sheepskin produced from a skin whose wool has been removed by the sweating process. Mazamet in France is a famous source of slats.
Slunk:- The skin of an unborn or prematurely born animal, especially calf.
Snake:- Any of a vast range of the reptile suborder Ophidia (or Serpentes), typically having a scaly cylindrical limbless body, for example cobras, rattlesnakes and the non-venomous constrictors, boas and pythons. Water snakes and small pythons are excellent for making belts.
Table Run or Tannery Run:- Terms used to describe leather which has not been sorted or graded before being sold.
Toad (Cane):- The leather for Cane Toad products comes from an eradication program in which the toads are humanely disposed of. The cane toad is an introduced (non Australian) species which has for many years been in plague proportions throughout the State of Queensland. All attempts to halt its spread have so far proved unsuccessful. They have no natural predators and are fatally poisonous to all native wildlife which eats them. The Australian government spends hundreds of thousands of dollars annually in attempts to eradicate the toads.
The skin of the cane toad is strong and flexible. After the tanning process it retains these qualities but also becomes softer and more supple. It makes up into excellent leather goods, and when backed with pigskin, is both tough and durable.
A cane toad discusses their way of life
Vachetta:-Calfskin that is tanned and left unfinished to look natural. This leather looks naked and gives the product an artisan feel.
Vellum:-Vellum is practically the same thing as parchment but is made of calfskin. The word is derived from the Latin vitulus, a calf, whence our word veal. Drum leather is a specialised variety of vellum, made nowadays in diminished quantities for the purpose indicated by its name.
Velour:- Velour, (from Old French velous, Old Provencal velos velvet, or Latin villosus shaggy) rough leather, nubuk, suede – there are many terms that describe this special, velvety material. There is plenty of room for confusion. But, it is not too hard to make a difference between them. Nubuk and velours are embraced under the term rough leather. Typical for rough leather is its velvety touch that is achieved by sanding its surface. The result of this procedure is a nice structure and a pleasant, warm grip. Although nubuk and velours appear quite similar by the end of their manufacturing process, the process itself is significantly different. With nubuk, the grained side – meaning the outer side of the leather – is sanded, which leaves a fine hártya. The grained pattern is still visible. Roughening the leather makes it more breathable which is, however, not exclusively positive. The leather's rough surface is more reactive to dirt, grease and (sun)light which causes the colours to fade. There are two kinds of velour leather. The flesh-split (lower layer) and the grain-split (upper layer). Typical for the flesh-split is its velvety touch in particular, relating to the perception and manipulation of objects using the senses of touch and proprioception, on both sides, while the grain split has velour only on one. Velour leather is extremely robust and breathable and is therefore often used for working boots and gloves.
Walrus:-Leather made from the hide of a walrus. Walrus hide is of such thickness that it is generally used for leather for buffing wheels. When split it is used for bag leather. It is difficult to distinguish between leather made of seal and walrus hides after tanning and splitting and the names are often used interchangeably. "Walrus Grain" is sometimes imitated on cattle hides, sheepskins and goatskins as well as on splits from hides of various animals. In such cases, the proper descriptions are "Walrus-grained Cowhide" or "Walrus Grain on Goatskin", etc. The term "walrus leather" when used in the luggage industry is generally regarded in the trade as being genuine sealskin leather on which a simulation of walrus grain has been embossed.
Chrome tanned leather. Chrome tanning creates a blue colour in the leather and
there is a natural safe resting stage just after tanning when the leather is
both wet and blue. A significant stage during which the leather is traded in
Wet White:-Hides and skins with the hair or wool removed and preserved after a light aluminium tanning. More stable than pickle. Increasingly used as an intermediate stage for transporting and selling hides and skins.
Zebra:-The Zebra is unlike any other member of the horse family because of its startling colour pattern. Parallel black or dark brown stripes appear on a whitish background all over the Zebra's body and are arranged in symmetrical designs.
They meet diagonally down the sides of the Zebra's head. These decorative lines may even appear on the Zebra's long ears, short thick mane, and down its tail to the tuft of hair.
Zug leather:- Zug is a waterproof grained leather most often
associated with "Veldtschoen" boots and shoes (Afrikaans for "field shoe",
although the Veldtschoen was developed by an Englishman, Albert Ingham of
Northampton). Zug leather originates from the famous tannery of the Swiss town
of the same name. The innovative, thrifty tanners of the area utilized a milk
chocolate syrup in much the same manner as the Scots of Islay (see Scotch grain
above). The chocolate imparts the characteristic dark brown colour and natural
waterproofing of Zug leather.