HAND-CRAFTED LEATHER GOODS
Descriptive terms used in connection with leather - continued
Oak tanned:- Originally hides and skins were almost entirely tanned using oak bark. As time elapsed it was applied to tanning using a mixture containing oak tannin. Now it is generally associated with the tanning of leather with vegetable extracts.
Oil tanned:- This is leather that is tanned with certain fish oils, producing a very soft, supple leather, such as chamois.
Pac (Pac Leather):- A type of footwear used by lumbermen, hunters, and others for outdoor wear, especially in northern climates. It is often of a moccasin type, and the upper usually extends to between the ankle and the knee. Some pacs are made with rubber bottoms and uppers to a height of an inch or more, the remainder being of leather. The leather used in pacs is usually heavily stuffed for water resistance.
Patent leather:- It has a shiny, impermeable finish, on one surface, created by the application of a succession of coats of drying oils, varnishes or synthetic resins. This coating was formerly built up by the application of various varnishes and lacquers, pigmented or non-pigmented, based on linseed oil. Laminates coated with a plastic film less than 0·15mm thick may also be classed as "patent leather". Not a long-lasting leather, as it is vulnerable to surface cracking.
Pelt:- This word means, strictly speaking, any kind of skin (Latin pellis,
related to the German felle, a skin, and the English word fell, now preserved only in fellmonger). The word is somewhat
loosely used in the leather industry, but its only common applications nowadays are to sheepskins in two or three
slightly differing senses: to the skin proper, to distinguish it from the wool that grows on it; to de-wooled
sheepskins, as a pickled pelt or a fellmongered; or in some countries to a woolskin bearing the shortest recognised
Tan colour - corrected and plated Rust colour - printed Grey colour - full grain
Tan colour - corrected and plated
Rust colour - printed
Grey colour - full grain
Pigmented leather:- Film-forming chemicals known as binders into which fine particles of colouring pigments are mixed and the resulting suspension applied to the surface of the leather. This makes it highly resistant to wear or fading. Pigmented leather is very durable and is used in the majority of furniture upholstery and almost all car upholstery. Usually done to cover imperfections in the leather. The surface coating allows the manufacturer more control over the properties of the leather, e.g. resistance to scuffing or fading. The thickness of the surface coating can vary but if the mean thickness is more than 0·15mm then the product can't be sold as leather in the United Kingdom due to consumer protection legislation.
Plated leather:- A heated metal plate is, under pressure, pressed onto the leather surface. This after the leather has been sanded and pigmented to conceal its imperfections.
Pull-up:- When pulled tight or folded it produces a brilliant burst of colour. 2-Tones are full aniline leathers that have been oiled and/or waxed. When the leather is pulled or folded, the oil and/or wax separates causing the colour to become brighter.
Reconstituted leather:- This is constructed from collagen fibres obtained from macerated hide pieces which are combined into a fibrous mat.
Rhubarb tanned:- The
Agricultural College in Bernburg/Thuringia cultivated two hectares of land
for growing rhubarb. The first harvest in October 1999 yielded sufficient
tanning agent for preserving around 8000 square metres of leather. The company
Wertleder from Zug in Saxony, which has already proved to be a reliable partner
in the past, is responsible for the production of leather on behalf of Audi.
As natural as possible is the motto for the new type of leather that Audi is currently testing for use in its vehicles. In order to achieve this objective, a substance is used in both tanning and dyeing which is obtained from the root of an indigenous type of rhubarb. This is a sustainable natural product that does not create any pollutive waste in production. Nor does it have to be imported from far away like other naturally extracted tanning substances.
A maximum of 3% of the tanning agent required can be extracted from the root. But the demand from Audi customers for leather which is manufactured as naturally as possible is growing. And it is already clear that the area for cultivating rhubarb can be extended without any trouble to meet increasing demand.
Roller Leather:- Special vegetable tanned leather for covers of the upper rolls of cotton-spinning machinery. Tanned from certain classes of sheep, lamb, and calfskins.
Rough tanned leather:- Leather, which after tanning has not been further processed, but has merely been dried out. The term "rough tanned" is used mainly in connection with vegetable tanned hide leathers.
Russet leather:- This is a vegetable-tanned leather, so named because of its colour, that is ready for staining.
Saddle leather:- A vegetable-tanned cowhide used in the making of harnesses and saddles. It is usually in a tan shade and is fairly flexible.
Sammed leather:- Leather that has been saturated in water and then left to mellow by allowing each fibre to become damp without the water being continuous between the fibres.
Sauvage Leather:- A sauvage is a top grain, semi-aniline leather. It has a two-tone appearance, which adds depth and character to the leather, producing a marbled or creased appearance. It resists spills and provides long wearability. It is extremely soft.
Shanks:- The legs or extremities of hides and skins which have stretch across the width but none in the length.